ESSENTIAL FX VOL.1 PRESSURE SAMPLES
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Increased sample viscosity does not affect sample resolution but may cause an increase in back pressure on the column. Use lower flow rates for high-viscosity solutions and/or low temperature (Table 4). When running viscous samples such as samples containing glycerol, dilution of the sample or lowering the flow rate might be needed if the back pressure is increased during sample load.
In physical disruption methods, the cell membrane is physically broken down by shear or external forces to release cellular components. Although physical methods have traditionally been used to disrupt cells, there are some inherent disadvantages to their use. Localized heating within a sample can occur with many of the techniques described, leading to protein denaturation and aggregation. To avoid this problem, it is essential to pre-chill equipment and keep samples on ice at all times. Reproducibility with homogenization and grinding methods can be challenging due to inexact terminology used to define sample handling. Furthermore, cells disrupt at different times, so the viscosity of the medium constantly changes and released subcellular components are subjected to disruptive forces. In addition to sample handling problems, some physical disruption methods require equipment, such as the French press and sonicator.
High blood pressure that is not due to another condition or disease is known as primary or essential hypertension. If an underlying condition is a cause of increased blood pressure, doctors call this secondary hypertension. 153554b96e